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Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was the tomb of King Mausolus that was built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus, known today as Bodrum .   

Mausolus was a satrap in the Persian Empire and Artemisia II of Caria, who happened to be both his wife and sister, ordered the Greek architects Satyros and Pythius of Priene to design and build the monument for her husband.  King Mausolus chose Halicarnassus to build a new magnificent capital city as it would be safe and well defended as his ships could block a small channel that kept enemy warships out.
Mausolus ordered his workforce to deepen the harbour and the sand that was dredged from there was used to make breakwaters to protect the front of the channel and inland they built paved streets, squares and houses for the common people. A huge fortified palace was built for Mausolus that had clear views out to sea and to the hills inland from where his enemies would be visible during attacks.  Walls and watchtowers, a Greek–style theatre and a temple to Ares the Greek god of war were also erected. 

The Mausoleum was approximately 45m (148ft) high and had 4 sides decorated with sculptural reliefs, each created by 4 Greek sculptors; Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus.  The building was rectangular and was encompassed by a colonnade of 36 columns and had a pyramid shaped superstructure that narrowed to the top by 24 steps where there were 4 horse chariots made from marble. 

The building also had sculptural friezes and free standing figures that were set out over 5 or 6 different levels and the completed structure was considered such an artistic achievement that Antipater of Sidon acknowledged it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

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